#5

  1. Is sex tourism purely international, that which points to our increasing globalization?  Or something else entirely?
  2. Does engaging in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) create new conceptions of masculinity and femininity?  How?
  3. Are those who participate in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) Othered?  Does the normalization one of your articles speaks to carry through for both genders?
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16 thoughts on “#5

  1. 1. Are those who participate in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) Othered? Does the normalization one of your articles speaks to carry through for both genders?

    Sex workers, all around the globe, are continuing to be targets of discrimination by majority of the population. Many people speak out against sex workers and alienate them simply because they are in the business of prostitution; people, generally, discuss sex workers in a negative light. It is easier to draw all sex workers with the same brush, however, it is important to accept and acknowledge that some people, residing in fringes of society, are forced into sex work due to financial crisis and in order to earn a living. In other places, as Hildegard Klein mentions in her article “Female Sex Tourism in the Caribbean,” Western women escape to the Caribbean, a place known for sexuality and seduction, in order to take advantage of the sexuality of Black sex workers. Klein writes, “…female tourists…[have] racialised power over the men: ‘Racist ideas about black men being hypersexual and unable to control their sexuality enable them to explain to themselves why such young and desirable men would be eager for sex with older and/or overweight women, without having to think that their partners are interested in them only for economic reasons’ (in Bindel 2003)” (Klein, 156). Through this, Klein indicates that not only do white women display a sense of superiority over Black men by engaging in sex work, but they also disparage them by not providing them with a voice of their own. White women convince themselves of their ‘passionate connection’ with “…‘beach boys’ or ‘boyfriends’…” (Klein, 156) that they fail to humanize them; white women view Black men through a racialized lens because they mention that they would not be sexual or intimate with a Black man back home (Klein, 160). In her article, Klein also refers to Tanika Gupta’s play and “…the scene ‘which closes and climaxes the first act of Sugar Mummies’ illustrates even more clearly ‘[t]he inequalities and violence of (the) racialised Othering’ (Aston 2008:190)…The scene [in which]…a middle-aged white woman…wields this sadistic power over a young, innocent beach boy. Her action recalls the time of colonialism and slavery when black men were bought, beaten up and humiliated” (Klein, 162). Klein indicates that the sex workers are indeed othered since the behavior of white women towards sex workers embodies the era of slavery.
    The normalization of sex work discussed in MacPhail, et. al’s article, “Technology, normalisation and male sex work,” is not carried through for both genders. The article discusses that technology has normalized the the sex industry in a way that sex workers do not have to stand on street corners in order to publicize themselves; they can now promulgate their job online while going about their everyday lives (MacPhail, et, al, 492). MacPhail et.al also writes that while male sex work has become normalized in recent years, it cannot be said the same for female sex work. The article states, “…concern around male sex work centred on the notion that… this activity involved older, predatory homosexuals preying on younger heterosexual males…This characterisation provides a contrast with female sex work, which was considered problematic largely because it was representative of patriarchal relations…male sex work has been normalised in recent decades…” (MacPhail, et. al, 485-486). The authors indicate that both male and female sex work were considered problematic, male sex work has become normalized in recent years while female sex work remains problematic.

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  2. 1. Is sex tourism purely international, that which points to our increasing globalization? Or something else entirely?

    Although the phenomenon of sex tourism definitely does point to our increasing globalization, I wouldn’t say that it’s purely an international thing and only that. While it is definitely easier at this point in time for people of different nations to trade freely amongst themselves, and while this can be a great thing in many contexts, there are also power dynamics involved in contexts like the sex tourism described in “Female Sex Tourism in the Caribbean-A Fair Trade or a New Kind of Colonial Exploitation?” that are deeply problematic. Analyzed from a postcolonial perspective, our author Klein quotes Joan Phillips who argues that this type of tourism “plays a great part in the othering and neocolonizing of people” (156). Klein also quotes playwright Tanika Gupta, who argues that “You can […] see it as white people colonizing and objectifying black sexuality. It’s almost like a return to the slave days, with white women checking out the men’s teeth, limbs and dicks before they buy”. As both of these quotes seem to suggest, it is difficult to call sex tourism a “fair trade” in these contexts, because there are inequalities present in the transactions that are difficult (and potentially dangerous) for us to ignore. This notion is beautifully depicted in Tanika Gupta’s Sugar Mummies, where “the dormant issues of class and race [between Sly and Kitty] come to the surface” (161) and the transaction takes an almost violent turn. In other words, the violent history of colonialism is always present in these transactions, whether the parties acknowledge it or not. Therefore, to call this something that’s purely international would seem like a dangerous oversimplification that ignores historical context. World trade didn’t just emerge out of nowhere. There are histories of oppression that must be borne in mind when we consider our contemporary world. I guess in a certain sense it is empowering that women can take control over their sexuality in this way, but it’s mostly wealthy white women who can afford these types of excursions, so this newfound empowerment excludes most women. For me, the most telling moment of the whole piece was when it was stated that most of the women interviewed by Bindel (2006) “admitted they would not sleep with black men back home” (167). This just reinforces the point that there are clearly racist dynamics at play that prevent sex tourism as being something wholly innocuous. I think that more research should be done into sex tourism, because it is definitely an interesting and promising thing. But it’s essential for us to be critical about what is really going on in these transactions and the interpersonal dynamics that come into play.

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  3. 1. Does engaging in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) create new conceptions of masculinity and femininity? How?

    Engaging in sex work is a choice that a man or woman makes to support themselves with the money they make. It is not the norm to engage in sex work, but it occurs when it’s the only option they have if they can’t find employment elsewhere. Regardless of your gender, if you engage in sex work, you are being submissive to a person that wants what you are offering, sex. In most cases, being submissive is a feminine trait, but it can’t be seen as feminine for a man to sell his body for money to support his family. This becomes equivalent to a part-time job. Being a sex worker does not make a man feminine, nor does it make a woman more feminine. Engaging in sex work simply allows the purchaser to have control over the worker, because in effect, the worker is working for the money. This reverses the role of men and women, making the women more dominate than the man and the male submissive to the women. Whoever is paying will have more power in the transaction, although the worker can be subjected to say “no”, the chances of that will be slim unless it’s for a reasonable cause, like finding a bum on their body that possibly be an STD. In the article “Female sex tourism in the Caribbean”, women traveled to Jamaica from Europe to indulge in being a tourist around sex workers that were willing to show the women a “good time”. For the need of money, a male will subject himself to showing the tourist women the affection they don’t get at home. This act shows that not only are women submissive, but for money, a man can be submissive in a way also.

    These men do not need the sex European tourist quest for as much as they need the money the tourist spend on them. Being expressed in the article when talking about the play “Sugar Mummies”, since the women and the beach boy was trying unsuccessfully to have sex, “In revenge, Maggie gives vent to her personal frustration, viciously kissing and licking his face, giggling and insulting him, and finally throwing a hand full of dollars at him… Her action recalls the time of colonialism and slavery when black men were bought, beaten up and humiliated. Antonio reacts by shouting abuse at her to defend his dignity: “Wh’d wan’ fuck an ugly bitch like you? You a raas blood claat… gorgon… bomba clawt… old duppy hag” (page 9). This explains how engaging in sex work does something other than create new conceptions of masculinity and femininity, instead it creates new conceptions of empowerment and exploitation. For someone, such as a man in Jamaica, to belittle themselves and put their dignity on the line to make money from pleasing woman they don’t desire, brings forth the question of the status of that country’s economy. Tourist view these sex workers as a “fun experience”, but on the other hand, they don’t see what the workers go home to which subjects them to exploiting themselves for a living.

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  4. #3 Are those who participate in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) Othered?  Does the normalization one of your articles speaks to carry through for both genders?

    The black men who labor in the participation of sex trade in the Caribbean areas such as East Africa, Asia, and the Anglophone are othered by the colonial exploiting their sexuality according to their race. The women who go to these Caribbean islands for “sex tourism” are white middle aged, single travelers, and with privileged economic position who uses or abuse the black men for their sexual pleasure. It’s almost a flashback to the time of slavery where the white people portraying the image of a black man as in what they believe of the idealist image of a black man is supposed to look like, observing their body parts before they buy him. That is one of the few steps of the sex trade these white women go through before buying the black man, before engagement in sexual activities. She observes him to make sure he is the perfect fit to prefill her sexual desires. Female tourists don’t make stereotyping any better when they have racists perceptions of black men, saying they are “hypersexual and unable to control their sexuality” (Klein 155). In the article “Female Sex Tourism in the Caribbean” in a play called Sugar Mummies talks about two tourist women venting about their fantasies, “In this perfect environment the tourist women, here Maggie and Kitty, venting about to their fantasies about the hypersexual Jamaican men and their beautiful muscular agile bodies” (Klein 157). How the tourist describe the sexuality of the black man give perceptions of this illusion that Jamaican men are supposed to be hypersexual and their bodies are muscular, and if a Jamaican doesn’t have these characteristics they wouldn’t be appealing to the women eyes? But not all Jamaican men are hypersexual and muscular. In the play Sugar Mummies shows an appealing image of a black man according to the Caribbean sex industry, “since beach bars advertise stimulating cocktails such as “Sex on the beach”, “Big Bamboo”, “Dirty Banana”, and “Jamaican Steel”. On the front cover of Gupta’s play text, we find a visual illustration of such a cocktail with a naked man in the shape of a cocktail stick poised on the rim of a glass. He is gazing at the beach, the turquoise sea, the deep blue sky and the arousing image of a woman’s bikini. The Caribbean sex industry is another example on how a black man sexuality image in the Caribbean is othered. This perception to look this way to be appealing and sexy in the eyes of female tourist. If their image wasn’t attracting to the women, there would be a great defect in the sex trade business. In the Sex trade industry in the Caribbean, a black man’s sexuality is perceived as meat on the market while the women abuse their power to those men who are in poverty, resulted in them participating in sex trade for money. Furthermore, a black man’s sexuality in sex trade is filled with stereotyped images of their body being the perfect illustration to prefill the white American tourist visions and expectations. The imagery of how slavery commodified and dehumanization of the black body still exist today of the expectationsof that colony in the sex trade business of black men. However, I do not believe the article speaks on the normalization for both genders, but reflect the issues on explotation on a black males sexuality and how the European women power in controlling and fantasizing over the black men who are participating in sex trade.

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  5. Does engaging in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) create new conceptions of masculinity and femininity? How?

    Societal members create concepts of what being a male or a female is, which only means masculinity and femininity are rooted in the social norms rather it being just a biological thing. This leaves unlimited concepts that may be generated by engaging in different types of behaviors. Across every culture, stereotypically, men are competitive, aggressive, and held as superior sex, while women are expressive and passive. However, in the Female Tourism in the Caribbean article it mentions how “Pratt introduces the concept of the contact zone, that is, the setting where the colonisers come into contact with the local people and where we can observe a gross imbalance of power, as the tourist has an advantage over the sex worker both economically and by their assumption of the label “tourist” (Klein 157). This shows how sex work creates new conceptions of masculinity and femininity. Men who are known to be superior in many cultures are inferior in this environment and vice versa. The same article also states how “female sex tourism – intergenerational and interracial is euphemistically classified as “romance tourism” since the women view their liaison with local males in terms of an amorous relationship rather than as a monetary prostitute-client transaction. In fact, the men are rarely referred to as “prostitutes” but rather as “beach boys” or “boyfriends” ( Klein 156). This implies that concepts change over time and sometimes interpreted differently than before. For instance, integrating the words beach boys, boyfriends, and prostitutes in order for them to feel less stigmatized. Furthermore, a concept changing over time is women’s ideal body types throughout history. Back when young women were not as exposed to the false advertisement of what their bodies should look like, having curves was considered a desirable, sexy trait to possess. Women were considered glamorous for their curves, and they showed their femininity through their body. This concept also affected males over time. In particular, “Fat Man’s Club was founded in 1866. This club was obviously exclusive to men who had achieved a suitable level of adiposity, but was also associated with power, prestige, and wealth of its members” (Janiszewski). That whole concept altered into a false ideal figure of males and females, such as muscular and toned men, skinny females, having the physical image to strive for. That perception pressured the public to try to make their bodies look a certain way. In this case, society continuously fabricates concepts of masculinity and femininity over time or even generations, which supports my claim that sex work creates conceptions of masculinity and femininity.

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  6. 2. Does engaging in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) create new conceptions of masculinity and femininity? How?

    Masculinity and femininity have been the constant driving force of the identification of one’s sexuality. Throughout years upon years, we see a pattern of masculinity transforming the way we see men in today’s society, and visa vera with women. And we ask ourselves questions when determining a person’s sexuality, such as ‘does this person portray their proper gender characteristics? How can we be sure?’ These conceptions have become universal based on how society constructs those particular ideals; you act your gender and that’s that. Now, in regards to sex work, we see an ultimate shift in power. In the article titled “Female Sex Tourism in the Caribbean,” the gender roles seem to swap from what we typically see here in America, in regards to illegal sexual pleasure such as prostitution. This article focuses on rich, professional women who travel from Europe to the Caribbean to indulge in sexual pleasures serviced by black, Jamaican men. The piece states that “men are rarely referred to as “prostitutes” but rather as “beach boys” or “boyfriends.”” Now, why these men given these lenient titles rather than just saying it like it is? Is it simply for the sake of the “romance tourism” advertisement? In fact, women are given the label of a ‘tourist’ on such “vacation,” which denotes fleeting time and affluence, and provides a sense of an imbalance of power amongst the sex worker and the individual. The term ‘tourist’ in this situation implies an economic advantage over the sex worker, which gives the woman a substantial amount of power over the man that could just want dinner on the table for his family. Ultimately, it is a choice to get involved in sex tourism, but it could very well be a last resort for most. These events could quite possibly lessen the amounts of masculinity due to the decrease of dominance and increase of submissiveness, whereas for women, you see an obvious increase in dominance, which is not typical in regards to authoritative figures. Women have the leg up practicing sex tourism in the Caribbean, unlike the usual prostitution we exhibit here in America with men having the upper-hand in a society, molding a new conception of masculinity and femininity.

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  7. Is sex tourism purely international, that which points to our increasing globalization? Or something else entirely

    The prevalence of sex tourism is linked to globalization and tantamount to modern day colonialism. Globalization has increased the ability to move goods and travel internationally. Third world countries were once colonies and colonizing powers often limited the economic development of the colonized. As a result, many former colonies are impoverished, third world country tries who are often economically dependant on tourism. This creates an environment where the sex trade is often one of only a few areas where the most marginalised can earn income. Sex tourism is not purely international because domestic funds are a part of what fuels the industry.

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  8. Does engaging in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) create new conceptions of masculinity and femininity? How?

    Sex work is defined as the provision of sexual services for goods or money. The act of sex work, as one who labors and as one who purchases is a choice made by both parties. Whether the intention is for a good reason or a bad reason, it is an economic transaction in which services are offered for money. Gender roles play a huge role in the act; masculinity and femininity in our society have formed into concepts that are recognized by all. The way we act defines how masculine or how feminine we are. However, as discussed in the article “Female Sex Tourism in the Caribbean”, the roles that are socially acceptable have switched roles. In the article, rich women are the consumers and are provided sexual services by poor Jamaican men. If we were to compare this to our society today, this is something that isn’t seen or talked about much. Its usually vice versa, men seeking women for sex in exchange for money. According to the article, “In fact, the men are rarely referred to as “prostitutes” but rather as “beach boys” or “boyfriends”.” Looking at our society today, I can’t think of any instances in which women who were playing the role as one who labors were called anything less than a whore, prostitute, hooker, hustler, etc. Why is it that these men, who were performing the same acts that a woman in our society would, are referred to with more intimate or less demeaning names. The conceptions of masculinity and femininity indeed do create new conceptions in sex work. In class, we discussed the fetishization aspect of sex tourism and the ideas or actions that are romanticized. One of the aspects was the act of consuming or empowering. In the article, one of the reasons women enjoyed doing something in the Caribbean that they wouldn’t even think to do back in their homes: “In such an exotic holiday setting “tourist women indulge in sexual pleasure in ways that they feel that they are unable to, or, feel they are not allowed to, back home”(Aston 2008:185) Kitty: “Wouldn’t do this back home” (25).” is the sole purpose of feeling control over men. Although some might argue, men usually have the upper hand in scenarios like this. When a man goes to a whorehouse to purchase services, in those moments, it is as if he “owns” the woman and can do whatever he pleases. Similarly, these women enjoyed the feeling of “owning” and dominance over men. To sum it up, the article most definitely expresses a great amount of power for women over men which lessens a man’s masculinity and increases the women’s femininity. This is indeed a new conception because in society, this is a situation in which the roles are reversed.

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  9. Engaging in sex work does create new conceptions of masculinity and femininity due to the fact that when a person engages in sex work as the laborer, they are offering their body up to the consumer. They are giving themselves up. When they do that, they create a kind of slave-master relationship and in the case of sex tourism as discussed in the article “Female Sex Tourism in the Caribbean” the females are the masters. Masculinity has always played the dominant role in today’s society however we see in sex tourism how it changes. For example, in the article, there was a scenario in which a lady ties up man to tree and beats him because he’s unable to have sex; “In revenge, Maggie gives vent to her personal frustration by stripping Antonio, tying him to a palm tree, beating him ferociously, viciously kissing and licking his face, giggling and insulting him, and finally throwing a handful of dollars at him.. ” The fact that the man was the one who was weak and unable to have sex, we can see that the roles of masculinity and femininity were reversed. Sex work in which the female is the consumer shows us females in control which is not seen much in male dominant and patriarchal societies.

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  10. Is sex tourism purely international, that which points to our increasing globalization? Or something else entirely?

    Sex tourism can in fact be considered something that increases the globalization of people. However, it is not the number one factor that leads into the increase of globalization. In the U.S prostitution is illegal in all states except Nevada, which allows it only in some counties. In the rest of the world, most countries do not have strict laws, which oppose to the world of sexual-trafficking. Prostitution and women trafficking has played a huge role in the economic world as well as people traveling from countries where it is illegal to legal.
    Sex traffickers around the world have made prostitution a multi-billion dollar industry. This has played a significant role in the economy and its globalization has been increasing and is said to increase more and more every year that passes by. However, there is a difference in where men and women often go to, to find sexual services. In the article, “Female Sex Tourism In The Caribbean” by Hildegard Klein, the author says, “Women’s sexual practice differs from that of their male counterparts, who as a rule use the services of an organised sex industry that offers sex shows, strip clubs and the like as a marketplace to pick their sexual partners”(Klein 156). This quote is referring to how men are more likely to go look for sex in places such as strip clubs or brothels, while women are most likely to go another route to find sex partners. Klein says, “Sánchez Taylor and O’Connell Davidson suggest that the reason many female tourists are able to delude themselves into believing they are not prostitute users lies in their racialised power over the men ”(Klein 156). This is referring to women that go out of the country to the Caribbean islands to find sexual partners that makes them seem as if they are not prostitute customers because it is all in the power of a woman to conquer a man’s desire and sexual intentions. This is where race also plays a part, because women who do this are basically saying that because men are black that it is normal to be involved in sexual services. This brings back memories of some black men getting treated like slaves and that it doesn’t make these women prostitute users because they are black.

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  11. Throughout our history prostitution has been perceived as a negative act of economical gain. Most of the time its been portrayed that women are sex workers and man are the beneficials who pay a lump amount of money for the various pleasuring acts performed. How ever, in the article “FEMALE SEX TOURISM IN THE CARIBBEAN” we learned that a lot of “ British independent professional women, rather than bored housewives, have progressed beyond the scenery of the Mediterranean to more exotic places such as East Africa, Asia or the Anglophone Caribbean in search of black men… who know how to flatter and seduce them”. These so called “Sugar Mummies” use their social status, and ability to buy services in the form of sexual favors , from poverty struck men in Jamaica to fulfill their need of feeling wanted and loved. They treat man as products , as actors who can play the perfect “boyfriend” or a “beach boy” in some fantasy life of “tourism romance” : In such an exotic holiday setting “tourist women indulge in sexual pleasure in ways that they feel that they are unable to, or, feel they are not allowed to, back home” (Aston 2008:185) Further more , I believe that othering becomes inevitable here as these rich white women use their social status and exploit black men: as Halliburton (2006) states that “on one level [female sex tourism] might seem to be about women’s liberation, it’s really another form of colonisation”. “Sex tourism is sexual exploitation, whoever is buying” and “unless we talk about this last taboo of female behaviour and condemn it, the young men on Negril beach will continue to be seen as playthings and commodities, not equal human beings” (Bindel 2006).
    On the other hand we have an article “Technology, normalization and male sex work” where its described how twenty first century technology like internet , cell phones plays to the benefits of male sex workers and their expansion of services and how sociologically speaking normalization has been a “silent cultural revolution.” On the other hand, it tells how “ the notion that the bulk of this activity involved older, predatory homosexuals preying on younger heterosexual males. Implicit in this problematization of male sex work was the notion that the hustler or rent-boy lacked agency and was exploited. This characterization provides a contrast with female sex work, which was considered problematic largely because it was representative of patriarchal relations”. While reading this article I got a sense that male sex work is considered to be a business entity that looks very different since it reached advanced level of communication.

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  12. Question #3: Are those who participate in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) Othered? Does the normalization one of your articles speaks to carry through for both genders?

    Those who participate in sex work are continuously being discriminated by the society. Though, they can be looked down in a negative way, these people who participate in sex work are most of the time forced into this work in order to make a living. In the article, “Female Sex Tourism In the Caribbean” the author quotes that, “Racist ideas about black men being hypersexual and unable to control their sexuality enable them to explain to themselves why such young and desirable men would be eager for sex with older and/or overweight women, without having to think that their partners are interested in them only for economic reasons’ (in Bindel 2003)” (Klein 156). By this means that, the white women also undervalues the black men while being superior over them as the black men don’t have a say in these since their hands are tied with financial reasons. White women also view these black men from a racial point of view because as in the article, the author mentions that the women would not be sexual toward the black men back home (Klein 160). The white women also go through few steps of the sex trade before buying the black man, as to she observes him to make sure he is the perfect fit. As mentioned in the article, in a play called Sugar Mummies, “In this perfect environment the tourist women, here Maggie and Kitty, venting about to their fantasies about the hypersexual Jamaican men and their beautiful muscular agile bodies” (Klein 160). In other words, the tourist women prefer to have Jamaican men who have masculine body and who are more athletic. That being said, the sex workers are indeed Othered since the white women’s preferences and behavior towards sex workers portrays the time of slavery. In the article, “Technology, normalisation and male sex work” the author discusses that the technology has played a big role on normalizing the sex industry especially for male sex workers, as to they can now publicize their job online compared to standing on street corners. As the article states that the female sex work is considered more problematic and male sex work has been normalized in recent decades (Klein 486). With this, we can conclude that the normalization isn’t carried through for both genders.

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  13. 2. Does engaging in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) create new conceptions of masculinity and femininity? How?

    When one decides or is forced to be a sex worker they are placed in a submissive position. When one looks at men sex workers, this statement holding true, the men in that profession become submissive. In the heteronormative society that plagues us, men are not supposed to be in submissive roles. Men are supposed to be seen as macho or dominant. When women purchase men sex workers they are creating new conceptions of masculinity and femininity because they place men in submissive roles. In the play “Sugar Mummies” by Tanika Gupta, which is mentioned by Klein, there is a scene in which the submissiveness and abuse of the beach boy is highlighted. One of the Sugar Mummies in the play after being unable to perform, “gives vent to her personal frustration by stripping Antonio, tying him to a palm tree, beating him ferociously, viciously kissing and licking his face, giggling and insulting him, and finally throwing a handful of dollars at him” (Klein, 162). This scene highlights the new conceptions of masculinity where the man is submissive and forced to appease the desires of a woman versus the focus being on male desire and dominance.
    New conceptions of masculinity and femininity are also reinforced by providing women with a new sexual agency. In the heteronormative society we live in women who are sexual empowered are seen as promiscuous or unlady like. But, when looking at women who go abroad to purchase male sex workers British women believe that this ‘purchasing power’ is a form of feminism or women’s empowerment. The British woman, “thinks she is entitled to have fun and casual sex, justifying her position by affirming that she has paid for it with her hard-earned money (8). She claims equal rights with men, an inheritance from the battle fought by the generation the Regular belongs to” (Klein, 165). In other words, being able to purchase a sex worker that is completely under her control makes her feel equal with men and therefore challenges typical conceptions about femininity. On a simpler note, there is a common belief that only men fly abroad to purchase sex or that only men purchase sex period. This entire article sheds light on a new way to think about sex work in terms of gender. Klein opens the article using a quote from Julie Bindel which reads, “thought it was just men who flew abroad for sexual kicks? (2006)” (Klein, 154). The idea of women purchasing sex turns the heteronormative picture of sex work on it’s head.

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  14. Does engaging in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) create new conceptions of masculinity and femininity? How?

    Most people have a limited knowledge of the world of sex work. To be honest I’ve always had a certain view of it which is woman are forced to sell their bodies, because they are either apart of human trafficking, drug issues or simply have a poor financial status. Basically sex work is the last resort for women in bad situations, nothing more than that. But from the article we read, we realize that this isn’t the case for every situation. Apparently in places where tourism is the main economical factor, there is a lot of people engaging in sex work. In particular Men, who claim that this was their first choice. So now this changes how I view sex work because it’s no longer a woman in need being taken advantage of by a man, but a man who chooses to work in this field and have older rich woman buying what he’s selling. So the tables have turned, and how we view the situation changes to. But it doesn’t change the concept of masculinity and femininity. Traits usually associated with masculinity are dominance and power, while femininity is associated with being delicate. Yes a woman paying for sex is challenging the social norms, but it’s not eradicating them. When a woman pays for sex, they sugar coat the action, by claiming the man is a boyfriend, or she’s helping him financially by sleeping with him. But when men do it it’s simply a man paying for a hooker. Basically there is no new conception because society will alter it’s thinking for things to make sense. It will give a better reason for a woman taking on a more dominate role, but dismiss men for just being men.

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  15. Is sex tourism purely international, that which points to our increasing globalization? Or something else entirely?

    Yes, I believe that sex tourism is purely international. If you think about it is called sex tourism, where the tourist is taking part and coming over from different countries to take part in the act. In the “Female Sex Tourism in the Caribbean” the author writes that “frustrated with their lives at home, the women are likely to believe the amorous attentions offered by the beach boys” (160). This exemplifies that women, in this case, are coming over from different countries to partake in sex tourism. The reason behind in partaking in this activity is that there are not happy with their life back home so they travel to this centuries to have sex and basically have a slave while they are on vacation. As it mentions in the same article that talks about Maggie and Antonio “relationship,” where she basically humiliates Antonio and in the end just throws money at him. Overall it does increase our globalization because the main reason for some people to travel to these countries is to partake in sex tourism. It is a big economic boost for these countries since most of the “beach boys” can’t find another job to be financially stable. If sex tourism didn’t exist the number of tourists will decline. As well its globalization because of its connecting the world altogether and having a service being provided that people are looking for where they can’t find in their own country.

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  16. Does engaging in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) create new conceptions of masculinity and femininity? How?

    The terms masculinity and femininity are keywords in the article “Female Sex Tourism In the Caribbean”, it is clearly stated that women are more predominate when it comes to purchasing men sex workers. Specifically, in search for black men, these single middle-aged women are seen to be privileged since they have the luxury to travel for vacation while spending money for sex. When it comes to engaging in sex work, there are new conceptions of these terms and there is definitely a new perspective since in this article we see women more engaging towards “prostitution”. Similarly, the article “Technology, Normalization, and Male Sex Work” includes research stating that there are increasing numbers of male sex workers throughout the globe with the help of technology, it makes it more easily for people to get in contact with sex workers. But here it also describes how people often choose this path for reasons that they need economic stability and is their last option when they cannot seem to get employed elsewhere. It is interesting to see that many women are actually in search for “male escorts” of “male sex workers” because women are usually represented as submissive and the laborer rather than the purchaser. So this act of sex work does not only characterize it as feminine since many men are the laborer in these cases. Here the gender roles are inverted and as mentioned in the article of “Technology, Normalization,…” that there has a been a “social shift with regards to masculinity”. In addition to this, it also would not be considered masculine since male sex workers can also be paid to be with a “homosexual”. Throughout the article ” Female Sex Tourism…” it is noted that there have been different forms of sexism between men and women. It mentions that the men sex workers are called nothing less than a “beach boys” or “boyfriends”, one can see the sex discrimination because women are called shameful and degrading names when they perform the exact acts as the men. Since society has become more aware of the sex work industry, it has transformed different perceptions of masculinity and femininity.

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