#7

  1. In what ways does incarceration demonstrate a fluidity in sexuality?
  2. Is there comprehensive sexual education for prisoners?
  3. Why isn’t incarcerated sexuality more discussed/researched?
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21 thoughts on “#7

  1. One way that incarceration demonstrates a fluidity in sexuality is by challenging the notion that sexuality is something that is fixed, or solely biological. As outlined in “Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prisons: A Preliminary Typological Investigation,” our author notes that “Prison sexuality is shaped by multiple levels of social life that are determined by mainstream culture and amplified by the idiosyncratic subculture, of correctional confinement” (280). In other words, incarceration demonstrates a fluidity in sexuality because the experiences of some incarcerated individuals seem to indicate that sexuality is something that is subject to change depending on different circumstances. This idea that sexuality is ‘shaped’ as opposed to being something that is innate seems to suggest that sexuality can be fluid. Something else that our piece discusses is the notion of ‘situational homosexuality’, or the notion that individuals may express their sexualities in certain ways while they are incarcerated that they wouldn’t otherwise. The idea of ‘situational homosexuality’ represents a narrative of sexuality as something that people have agency over and that is also subject to change. There is a diversity of sexual behaviors that individuals exhibit in prison, and not all of them fit cleanly into society’s idea of sexuality as something non-changing/constant.

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  2. 2. Is there comprehensive sexual education for prisoners?

    Compared to other institutions, such as the health care field and schools, there is minimal sexual education for prisoners. According to the clinical report titled “Sexuality Education for Children and Adolescents,” “sexuality education is defined as teaching about human sexuality, including intimate relationships, human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, gender identity, abstinence, contraception, and reproductive rights and responsibilities.” Now, when analyzing sexual education for prisoners, not much comes to mind right off the bat. This could be simply due to the fact that correctional facilities are not held to that particular standard to teach such material, yet prisoners have an extremely high possibly of feeling sexually uncomfortable in such environment. As discussed in the YouTube video we watched in class created by the New York State, incarcerated women share what prison is like, in terms of sexual assault and violence within the correctional facilities. These women stress how important safety is within the prisons, and they essentially exploit the system by discussing the increase of paranoia and fear due to the mass of sexual encounters that occur, whether they are warranted or not. According to the article “Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prisons,” prisons are creating programs that address such encounters, but isn’t that already too late? It can be assured that there is comprehensive sex within the correctional facilities, but the lack of sexual education could be contributing to the increase of sex between the inmates, and inmates with staff. Not only are these events labeled as non-consensual, but those in authoritative positions are abusing their power. It has ultimately become inevitable. Who are we to trust? Sexual education is essentially non-existent for prisoners until after the sexual encounter occurs, which is pointless at the end of the day. These prisoners need enforced sexual education to keep them informed on common subject matters, in their temporary or permanent place of living.

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  3. Why isn’t incarcerated sexuality more discussed/researched?

    People that have been incarcerated are the ones who really know the punishment of being locked up. People in society that have never been incarcerated will never know exactly what happens behind bars. The assumptions made by a person apart of society that has not been to jail can be possibly based off their ignorance of prison behavior, what they saw on television, or heard from a prisoner they personally know. Usually television does not depict sexuality of inmates, and a freed prisoner is less likely to be open about their sexuality if they identified as a heterosexual outside of prison, but identified as a “situational homosexual” while incarcerated, as mentioned in the article, “Constructing and Performing Sexualities in the Penitentiaries” (page 337). Incarcerated sexuality isn’t discussed/ researched more because there is a stigma on prisons, that if you go, it is deserved or asked for by that person who was incarcerated. The sexually and physically abuse comes with being incarcerated, and its apart of the punishment for inmates, although there are rules against such abuse in prisons. Therefore, the result of not discussing or doing more research about incarcerated sexuality remains as a mere situation of “Don’t drop the soap”, or others things as such, which insinuates that what happens to a person in prison is deserved. Not discussing or researching incarcerated sexuality can be a preventative method to keep people from causing crimes to end up in prison.

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  4. Why isn’t incarcerated sexuality more discussed/researched?

    Sexuality amongst prisoners isn’t discussed or researched for a number of reasons. As we found out in class today prisoners can not give consent for sex. I believe this limits what researchers would learn from interviews with inmates and staff alike. The fact inmates can not consent to sex then makes all sexually activity in the prison rape, whether it’s amongst willing participants or not. The images of sex amongst prisoners people are exposed to in the media is also problematic. In mens prisons the scene is always set so the weaker man is raped in the shower. When women are portrayed as prisoners it’s usually in porn, where it’s either a lesbian sex scene or a scene where a guard is taking advantage of a female inmate. These are not what people want to think of and make the subject somewhat taboo.

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  5. In what ways does incarceration demonstrate a fluidity in sexuality?

    According to society’s trait, individual’s sexual preferences, behaviors, and identities can be pliable to some degree. The article Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prison, focused on incarcerated sexuality and how individual’s sexual likings, either heteroexual or homosexual, can change over time, depending on the immediate situation the individual is in. The article mentions “homosexuality among convicts may be described as either ‘true’ or ‘situational’” (Pardue, Arrigo and Murphy, 286). Meaning, he/she is ‘true’ to the homosexual lifestyle prior to incarceration or that person is persuaded into a homosexual preference or vice versa after incarceration due to the environment he/she is in. For example, one who identifies him or herself as heterosexual but find themselves in a same sex setting might feel attraction towards those who have same sex partners. The article used the term ‘jailhouse turnouts’ or ‘penitentiary turnouts’ to classify those individuals who switch sexual attractions. “Others incarcerates often viewed this behavior as ‘sick’ or as a ‘perversion’” (Pardue, Arrigo and Murphy, 287). This group of people believe they fit into the paradigm that is set forth for them, which finds them having no desire for experimentation even though a large number of people incarcerated display sexual fluidity by engaging in sexual behavior with men, women and transsexuals.

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  6. In what ways does incarceration demonstrate a fluidity in sexuality?

    Sexuality in society is influenced by environmental, biological, psychological and sociological factors and sexuality in prison is influenced by similar factors (Hensley, Tewksbury, & Koscheski, 2001; Tewksbury & West, 2000). In other words sexuality is not a stagnant thing it is constantly being influenced by the aforementioned factors. In prison there is a drastic change in the environmental factors faced in society; incarcerates are usually housed in all-male or all-female facilities, in close proximity with one another and unable to move about or act freely. These limitations create a change in the environment, therefore creating a change in the way environmental factors influence inmates’ sexuality. Being incarcerated can cause one to move along the spectrum of sexuality, demonstrating sexual fluidity within incarcerates. According to Pardue, Arrigo & Murphy, this movement along the spectrum can be attributed to inmates sexual experiences prior to prison, sexual violence, and the deprivation of heterosexuality in all-male or all-female facilities (p. 2). Pardue, Arrigo & Murphy quote Hensley, Tewksbury, & Koschesk; Tewksbury & West and say that these factors force “prisoners to turn to alternative methods of achieving sexual gratification [such as] masturbation, consensual same-sex activity, and coerced same-sex activity” (p. 2). Environmental factors of prison cause inmates to engage in consensual and nonconsensual same sex acts while in prison that might not have happened had they not been incarcerated. The most interesting point made by Pardue, Arrigo & Murphy regarding this movement along the spectrum is the idea of importation-exportation association (p. 2). Importation-exportation association means that inmates bring their sexual experiences with them inside the prison, but if they are released they carry their sexual experiences from inside the prison to society and life outside the prison; which permanently impacts their sexuality. This is another demonstration of sexual fluidity caused by incarceration.

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  7. Is there comprehensive sexual education for prisoners?

    Prison is a center or a facility where men and women are forced to spend a certain amount of time for the crimes committed. Inmates are allowed to work, learn and have some sort of interaction between one another. However when it comes to sexual education , I believe they don’t receive the thorough and complete “course” about relationship affairs under bars. In the article “Constructing and Performing Sexualities in the Penitentiaries” author starts how :“Historically, the study of sexuality in male correctional facilities has occupied a marginalized position in the academy”. Some people get this perception that if you have committed a crime and doing some time , you are less of person and therefore sexual education may not be that important for you : “Only recently have corrections scholars begun to explore prisoners’ attitudes toward sex while imprisoned. For example, a number of studies have investigated the extent and predictors of homophobia in male and female prisons “. Moreover , “research on same-sex sexual behaviors among incarcerated men was particularly neglected, with the earliest studies emerging over 50 years after the publication of the first study of female prisoners’ same-sex sexual behaviors (Hensley & Tewksbury, 2002)”. Finally, the Youtube video we watched in class, displays various women who are incarcerated and have had struggles with the sexual assault and violence brought upon them in prison. Officials from New York State are trying to help women who enter these correctional facilities get proper education and help. So hopefully this can be a starting point of more videos to come, warden training , and better personal, that can help women and men learn about circumstance surrounding sexual encounters in prison.

    Sources :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prison

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  8. Prisoners don’t have much rights once they are incarcerated and sent to prison. While they are many issues within the justice system in our country, one of the most overlooked issue is in regards to prison sexuality or incarcerated sexuality. This goes on daily in prisons are it is not being looked into anymore than any other prison topic. Sexuality in the prison setting varies from many degrees of bad. Some including sexual violence. This issue does not gain a lot of attention due to one of the facts being that it involves individuals that committed crimes which society looks down upon and those people don’t have many rights once in prison. They are people to who don’t deserve to be sexual abused or to be forced to feel as if they are helpless in prison. The department of justice preaches about equality and how they have several different ways to report rape or sexual abuse that occurs within a prison but yet prisoners don’t have that right fully. They are not entitled to report that or meaning that the report won’t move any further in regards to be investigated. Researchers don’t see this issue to be very important because they are people who committed a crime and are not good enough in their eyes to deserve a better life after prison or during prison. Many people won’t even care about this issue because society would believe that this what they deserve after they did something wrong. They feel as if this issue of sexuality in prisons is not important. Some of the prisoner feels lonely and depressed which places them into a vulnerable state which leads to them being in a harmful relationship where they got tricked into. Pardue in her article “Sex and Sexuality in Women’s prisons” states “incarcerated women are susceptible to a number of different sexually harmful behaviors broadly consisting of harassment, assault (including strip searches), and rape” (Pardue 289). This article states that these women in prisons go through adversity with sexual violence. This is not being looked into due to it being not important in the eyes of society. This issue needs to be brought up and researched to ensure the safety of the individuals in prisons.

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  9. #3 Why isn’t incarcerated sexuality more discussed/researched?
    Generally, homosexuality has been and still is a controversial topic to discuss period. When the word homosexuality is put up for a topic discussion it is linked to be described as something that can be natural, unnatural, sinful, a criminal, or someone with a mental illness. Studies have suggested that heteronormativity and homophobia are universal in prisoner cultures and are reflected in how sexuality is broadly formed and acted out by incarcerated men. Generally, results suggest that prisoner culture in Ontario penitentiaries can be characterized as being heteronormative, and homophobic which leads to the lack of discussion of incarcerated sexuality being discussed or researched. These views promote innate anxiety towards the defamed description on the word “homosexual”, that seem to provoke three kinds of behavior (Which are “the construction of homosexuality, the suppression of homosexuality, and the assertion of heterosexuality”), during and before incarceration. The majority of who display these kinds of anxiety, they would distance themselves from homosexuality by making same-sex sexual behaviors as in opposition to “the norm in Canadian male prisons and by ‘‘othering’’ gay prisoners”. Second, knowing about homosexual activities and gay behaviors themselves that are conducted in the prison where they are carefully regulated to get threats that will have them excluded from a group or environment and to violence, with the outcome of putting down homosexuality in the prison environment. Third, a heteronormative culture was maintained in Ontario penitentiaries through frequent claims of heterosexuality and conversations of heterosexual relationships that goes on. In previous theoretical studies have shown the pervasiveness of homophobic attitudes among male prisoners as a risk on the personal safety that gay prisoners face in the general population because of their sexual orientation. Another reason why incarcerated sexuality is not discussed or researched is due to the studies shown about prison sex in general as it carries challenges in data accuracy. According to the article Attitudes and Behaviors Among Male Prisoners, Prisoners might not want to reveal their same-sex sexual experiences in prison out of fear of the back-lash they would get, such as being denounced or mistreated by others. Also living in a heteronormative society and talking about sexuality and sex among prisoners would be of a dismissive topic in a conversation, because we live in a world were homosexuality is looked down upon as abnormal and sinful. I believe researchers might feel that people don’t want information on gay sex in prison, since it is not interesting or acceptable for a heterosexual’s point of view of the norm in moral standards living in a heteronormative society.

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  10. In what ways does incarceration demonstrate a fluidity in sexuality?

    Sexual fluidity is the notion that sexuality can be changed and reshaped due to environmental and societal influences. In her article, “Sexual fluidity: Living a label-free life,” Lily Edelstein defines sexual fluidity as an “…acknowledgement that attraction and desire is organic, unpredictable, and something that grows with a person, not something they commit to outright” (Edelstein 2016). In other words, environment, society as well as culture are factors that influence one’s sexual preference. In “Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prisons: A Preliminary Typological Investigation,” Pardue and colleagues mention, “prison sexuality is shaped by multiple levels of social life that are determined by mainstream culture… various environmental, biological, psychological, and sociological factors influence sexuality in society, and these factors are further complicated by the experience of incarceration” (Pardue, et. al, 1). By this, the authors indicate that womens’ sexualities, when incarcerated, are influenced by their social life outside of the prison. They also imply that when the prisoners are released, their sexuality is impacted by a combination of environmental, sociological and cultural aspects as well as their experiences from their confinements. The authors directly suggest that sexuality can be influenced and changed due to various factors and this implies that sexuality is, in fact, fluid. The authors write, “situational homosexual activity…has…been viewed as a product of the correctional environment…Severance (2004) noted that categorizing individuals as ‘straights’ or ‘gays’ ignores the very real fact that sexual orientation can change over a period of time. As a result of sustained confinement within a population of all female incarcerates, the deprivation of heterosexual activity is most commonly cited as the explanation for the presence of prison homosexuality (Kunzel, 2008)” (Pardue, et. al, 288). By this, the authors provide another example of sexual fluidity demonstrated by incarceration; they imply that due to the lack of heterosexual opportunities during imprisonments, women engage in homosexual behaviors but return to heterosexual activities post incarceration (288). The notion of fluidity in sexuality demonstrated by incarceration is further supported by Sit and Ricciardelli’s article, “Constructing and Performing Sexualities in the Penitentiaries: Attitudes and Behaviors Among Male Prisoners,” in which they state, “…‘situational homosexuals’ refer to prisoners who identify as heterosexual pre, post, and during their incarceration, and yet engage in homosexual behaviors while in prison (Kirkham, 1971; Sykes, 1958)…same-sex sexual attitudes and behaviors of these prisoners are attributed to factors within the prison environment…” (Sit and Ricciardelli, 337). By this, the authors suggest that men’s sexuality is also impacted by the environment of the prison; due to the lack of heterosexual activity in the prison, men engage in homosexual behaviors during their incarceration even though, they identify as heterosexuals. This is an example of sexual fluidity; sexuality is not something that is continuous or specified; it can change due to environmental, sociological or cultural factors. Sexuality can also change due to one’s experiences pre, post and during incarceration.


    Edelstein, Lily. “Sexual Fluidity: Living a Label-free Life.” ABC News. ABC News, 19 Feb. 2016. Web. 07 Nov. 2016. .

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  11. #1: In what ways does incarceration demonstrate a fluidity in sexuality?

    In the article, “Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prisons: A Preliminary Typological Investigation,” the author starts off by stating that “Prison sexuality is shaped by multiple levels of social life that are determined by mainstream culture and amplified by the idiosyncratic subculture of correctional confinement” (280). This basically means that sexuality in prison can be influenced and changed at any given circumstances due to various factors, though it is also influenced by the importation of one’s previous sexual identities and experiences. Moreover, the article, “Constructing and Performing Sexualities in the Penitentiaries: Attitudes and Behaviors Among Male Prisoners” in which they introduces ‘Situational Homosexuality’, which basically refers to prisoners who identify as heterosexual pre, post, and during their incarceration, and they still engage in homosexual behaviors while in prison (337). In other words, due to the lack of heterosexual activity in prison, the incarcerated individuals, who identify as heterosexual, fulfill their sexual needs through sexual acts with other men as they don’t seem to have any other choice. With all that being said, it can be concluded that incarceration does demonstrate a fluidity in sexuality because sexuality is not something that is fixed, it is more likely ‘shaped’ through environmental, and sociological influences.

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  12. Incarceration demonstrates a fluidity in sexuality among both men and women inmates. This fluidity is expressed through the concepts of situational homosexuality and true homosexuality. In the study “Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prison: A Preliminary Typological Investigation,” Angela Pardue and her peers examine sexual dynamics and activities in women’s correctional facilities. In expressing the fluidity of sexuality, Pardue and her peers state, “sexual behaviors practiced in women’s prisons are diverse” (Pardue et al. 281). Many heterosexual women participate in situational homosexuality while incarcerated. These activities are seen as “a product of the correctional environment” (287). Women who decide to engage in homosexual activity only while incarcerated do so due to the “deprivation of heterosexual activity” (280). These women learn to adapt sexually based on “environmental, biological, psychological, and sociological factors” (280). Environmental and psychological factors are the most vulnerable in a prison setting. Women who would be classified as true homosexuals are women who engage in same-sex sexual activities even when not incarcerated. However, in prison, these women may choose to suppress their sexuality by “not [engaging] in sexual acts with [themselves] or others” (283). Other true homosexual women may only practice autoerotism while incarcerated. In this decision, a woman would choose to only masturbate, rather than engaging in sex with other inmates. The prison system often influences this, because many women do not trust others or their surroundings enough to engage in sexual activities. Similar sexual fluidity occurs in men’s prisons. However this fluidity is more hidden in male facilities. In the study “Constructing and Performing Sexualities in the Penitentiaries: Attitudes and Behaviors Among Male Prisoners,” Victoria Sit and Rosemary Ricciardelli examines the stigma of homosexual behaviors in men’s prisons. Instead of being open about the fluidity of sexuality behind bars like in many women’s prisons, male inmates are more “adamant about not having knowledge about or personal experiences with these acts, which they referred to using derogatory language” (Sit and Ricciardelli 338). Rather than acknowledge fluidity in sexuality in prison, male inmates put more effort into asserting and defending their masculinity and heterosexuality. In doing this, these male inmates manage to distant themselves from homosexuality and its stigma. However, that does not negate the fact that many of these inmates are “normal heterosexual men [turning] to deviant homosexual behaviors during incarceration” (337).

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  13. In what ways does incarceration demonstrate fluidity in sexuality?
    When a person is first imprisoned in jail, their sexual preferences remain the same as they were before incarceration. A jail inmate can start to see change in their sexual preferences once a long time has passed by since their last day of freedom. However, this can differ between the length of the jail sentences that inmates have been given. For example, it is highly unlikely that a prison inmate who is given 6 months to a couple of years of jail time and is straight will engage voluntarily in sexual acts with other inmates. On the other hand, we have prison inmates that are serving lifetimes in prison and will never be able to experience sex as they once did when they were on the outside. Having been casted out from the outside world due to a crime they have committed starts to take a toll on their sexual needs and desires. As humans we all have needs and desires that start to take a hard patch on our minds such as using the term “sexually frustrated.” As a jail inmate this frustration can take a toll on someone by depriving one of those needs that every normal person has, thus leading to becoming inclined towards their fellow inmates to satisfy those needs. In the article titled, “Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prisons: A Preliminary Typological Investigation,” one of the authors named Bruce A. Arrigo finds that, “Prison sexuality is shaped by multiple levels of social life that are determined by mainstream culture and amplified by the idiosyncratic subculture, of correctional confinement” (Arrigo 280). This is further expanding on the point that incarceration is in fact demonstrating fluidity in sexuality by presenting different out comes and situations according to the situations in which these prisoners are involved in.

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  14. Is there comprehensible sexual education for prisoners?

    In my opinion, I think convicts who enter a prison already anticipate what many perceive about prison and how sexual violence is in fact, an encounter many prisoners think is inevitable. Perhaps these correctional facilities do not find it reasonable to take much action into educating these convicts since they already supply them with different forms of help. As we saw in the Youtube video in class today, the state of New York mandates the correctional facility to show incoming women inmates videos such like the one we watched to state that sexual violence or sexual assault may occur while serving your time but that does not mean that it is not preventable. Current inmates describe how it feels when you first enter a prison and how everyone has these fears or expectations from what the public usually sees in movies or tv shows. But in reality, it is not really like that, the inmates described that there are ways many can avoid sexual violence. That being worried of being called a snitch does not matter when it comes to one’s self well being. In the video, it is stated that there are proper ways to let the facility and staff members know whether you suspect or are being sexual abuse. In class, we discussed different forms of sexual violence and even by the notion of someone attempting to help you out can be considered a form of sexual violence. In the article ” Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prisons…” sexual violence is defined as three forms: violence, manipulation, and coercion. It is also said that sexual violence is not only considered a coercion between convict but “coercion between convicts and staff members” (289) As to whether these women are given a specific educational system on sexual education, the ways of telling them where to get help and what to do when faced with these acts through programs to seek help afterwards is not really considered to be a comprehensible sexual education. Although, it is implied in the video that the correctional facility does take these accusations very seriously and are dealt with high regards.

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  15. Incarceration demonstrates a fluidity in sexuality in numerous different ways. In the article titled “Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prisons: A Preliminary Typological Investigation,” Angela Perdu demonstrates to us as to how that can be. In the article she states, “… various environmental, biological, psychological, and sociological factors influence sexuality in society, and these factors are further complicated by the experience of incarceration” (Perdu 280). Many people have the notion that your sexuality is something you are born with however this article seems to challenge that and show us that sexuality is fluid. The author goes on to quote another author stating, “This deprivation forces prisoners to turn to alternative methods of achieving sexual gratification [such as] masturbation, consensual same-sex activity, and coerced same-sex activity” (Perdu 280). The author suggests that one of the reasons as to why inmates become flexible with their sexuality is because they are deprived of sexual experiences with their partners.

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  16. 3. Why isn’t incarcerated sexuality more discussed/researched?

    Prisons are structured in either all women or all men facilities, therefore, there are already anti-heteronormative suggestions associated with incarcerated sexuality. Rape and sexual advances among prisoners are widely displayed as problems associated with incarcerated sexuality, thus causing stigmas to be attached to these relations. Also, since inmates technically cannot consent to sexual relations, people do not want to talk about, because recognition would not allow people to ignore that prisoners still are human and are sexual beings. Researchers know that when inmates, for instance in an all women’s prison discussed in “Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prisons: A Preliminary Typological Investigation”, engage in these relations, they are homosexual, therefore there are already certain biases towards that group. Also, it simply is looked at in a negative light and “Studies on sex in prison have typically been viewed with disbelief and have been the subject of controversy, cynicism, and disapproval” which causes the marginalization of those researchers actually willing to conduct this research (Arigo& Murphy & Pardue 298). Therefore, the stigmas attached to the ‘prison sex’ limits the desire of researchers to further study it, and those who actually do try and study it become secluded.

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  17. In what ways does incarceration demonstrate a fluidity in sexuality?

    For my answer to this question I will only be talking about consensual sexual activity between prison inmates. In both of the readings Constructing and Performing Sexualities in the Penitentiary – Attitudes and Behaviors Among Male Prisoners and Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prisons – A Preliminary Typological Investigation the authors shed light on “true” and “situational” homosexuality. In both articles the author’s give a possible explanation to “situational” homosexuality as being the result of a “deprivation of heterosexual activity” yet research has shown that after some inmates are released and are back in society, they may sometimes continue homosexual behavior.
    Situational homosexuality shows that sometimes sexuality can be fluid, having no access to the opposite sex leads some to seek out others of the same sex. Yet predominate heteronormative thinking inside prison walls may lead some to shame and secretive same sex behavior.

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  18. 2. Is there comprehensive sexual education for prisoners?

    According to Merriam-Webster, prison is defined as a building where people are kept as punishment for a crime while they are waiting to go to court or a place or situation from which you cannot escape. In prison, people are punished and are kept in cells and are not allowed out. Depending on the circumstances, they are allowed to work and do chores for money which allows them to buy necessities for themselves or just keep time going. Sexual education is not seen as something worthy to teach in prison, according to the article “Constructing and Performing Sexualities in the Penitentiaries: Attitudes and Behaviors Among Male Prisoners”. When people are in prison, they are not given the same amount of rights as others and are looked down upon hence the sexual education being “unworthy”. However, according to the article “Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prisons”, “the typological continuum seeks to assist in the development of sexual exploitation/ victimization prevention, education, and training for correctional personnel; to advance efforts in evidence-based sex in prison society future research; and to expand victim/perpetrator treatment, policy and programming. The author explains that a new classification system that will be used to cover sexual behaviors that take place in women’s prisons will work better after this programming.

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  19. Why isn’t incarcerated sexuality more discussed/researched?

    Society likes to dismiss prisoners as nothing more than trouble makers in society. People like to forget that they are humans that when serving time deserve some basic human rights. A lot of people believe that what ever happens in prison to prisoner is well deserved and part of their punishment. ” Consistent with this view, much of the research on rape in correctional settings ignores the correlation between sexual violence in society at large
    and sexual violence within prison; thus, the extant empirical literature limits the scope of victimization to the convict subculture. For example, “The research on rape in prisons tends to ignore this larger body of literature and
    operates on the assumption that rape in prison is somehow drastically different from the rape of women in the community”” (pg 298). Meaning that rape in prison is dismissed, simply because they are prisoners. They are treated as if they don’t deserve basic human rights. It also isn’t is discussed because of the people view of homosexuality. Homosexuality has been controversial. It’s been viewed as unnatural and a mental illness. Combine that with a bad view of prisoners, making a topic that people don’t want to discuss. There is also a trickle down affect about not wanting to discuss the topic. Prisoners get dismissed when mentioning sexual assault. Researchers also get dismissed when trying to mention the topic. Most people don’t want to educate them selves on what happens in prisons.

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  20. Sexuality is not something that must necessarily remain permanently fixed. Sexuality can be fluid, and the prison system is a place where its fluidity can be clearly evidenced. Being imprisoned comes with the consequence of being denied many liberties, heterosexual sexual activity being among those. While there are occasions of corruption in the system, with prison officials of the opposite sex having relations with inmates, in turn allowing some inmates to receive sexual gratification without having to disregard their pre-incarceration sexuality, this is not always the case. Many inmates will adopt a change in their sexuality in order to receive sexual gratification while on the inside. The article “Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prisons: A Preliminary Typological Investigation”, uses the term “prison sexuality”, indicative of the fact that there is a change in sexuality within prisoners that differs from the outside. The article offers the idea that there are five categories of sexuality once females become incarcerated, those being “suppressed sexuality, autoeroticism, true homosexuality, situational homosexuality, and sexual violence” (282, Pardue et al.). While it may seem that the idea of sexual fluidity may only apply to heterosexual women who are incarcerated, homosexual women are not excluded from this, because they too, can still fall into one of the above categories. Additionally, as the article states, the fluidity of sexuality is not evidenced only while the women are incarcerated, because there are instances where the women will continue to identify with the sexuality the took on while imprisoned after they are released.

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  21. 2. Is there comprehensive sexual education for prisoners?

    Sexual education in its right form includes accurate information of all sexual aspects, including sexual anatomy, male and female reproductive systems, consent, reproduction and reproductive rights, forms of sexual activity, sexually transmitted diseases, and all forms of birth control. Prisoners do not get comprehensive sexual education. According to the video from YouTube by state of New York, new inmates in an all female prison are taught preventative measures for sexual assault while in prison. These new inmates are being taught and informed by experience.
    Women in the video explain the dynamic in female prisons and how it isn’t what they expected from tv shows and movies. For example, women described how they thought prison was going to be chaotic and with a large rape culture. These women did not speak of sexual health or any acceptance of sexual activity. The entire situation is ignored. The video only enforced how sexual assault and violence may occur, even if it’s something as simple as someone wanting to share your meal. Despite there being some form of rape culture in prisons, the problem is also that consent for sexual activity is not allowed while in prison. Because sex is not legally supposed to be a part of prison culture, it is not spoken about enough to go in depth as sexual education., regardless of the fact that sexual attraction and sexual relationships do form in prisons. Sexual education is not deemed necessary when sexual relationships between inmates are not supposed to occur.

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