Message Board

  1.  How does the racialization or the sexualization of people younger than 21 take place?
  2. Where do you see an active, purposeful movement of language from static from dynamic in regards to gender?
  3. Are there any ways to resist sexualization/racialization?

38 thoughts on “Message Board

  1. Sexualization can be defined in terms of using appearances to justify certain ideologies people might have about different groups of people, particularly the difference between men and women. Haslanger in “Gender and Race” says, “Sexual difference functions as the physical marker to distinguish the two groups, and is used in the justification of viewing and treating the members of each group differently” (Haslanger 38). This quote can reflect on why people under 21 can be sexualized already and put into certain ‘categories’. If physical characteristics, such as a developing 14 year old girl’s breasts and hips, are noticed as ‘becoming a woman’, attached to this is a woman’s ability to have sex, therefore society labels her natural biological body as sexual. The problem is also that these characteristics can lead to the objectification of women, thus them being “systematically subordinated” compared to their male counterparts.

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  2. I believe that the sexualization of people younger than 21 takes place primarily through media outlets such as television and social media. We constantly see shows like Toddlers and Tiaras where little girls have to wear a lot of makeup and borderline sexy outfits in order to win and Instagram famous kids that are dressed like grown adults at too young of an age. Girls look up to celebrities that exude sexiness and consider themselves subpar if they don’t look like them. I think girls are definitely more sexualized in this way than boys.

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  3. Racialization and sexualization of people younger than 21 takes place mostly through the messages received, or perceived, from the numerous media outlets readily available to them. With the growth of social media and greater access to information, it is easy to be bombarded with images of “normal”or “ideal” bodies through advertisements and other commercial images. These images may or may not place pressure, especially on people under 21, to conform to these images. I think that the language moves from static to dynamic when the terms “man, woman, male, female” are taken off paper and applied to actual human cases where situations differ and terms no longer properly apply in some cases. While it is easy to say that gender is pointless, social cues still lead us to place people into the categories that are offered. With the limited “static” language that we have, its difficult to apply it to the “dynamic” situations which are unique to the identity of each individual.

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  4. In “Gender and Race” (What) Are They? (What) Do We Want Them To Be?” Sally Haslanger states, “A group is racialized if its members are socially positioned as subordinate or privileged along some dimension…and the group is “marked” as a target for treatment by observed or imagined bodily features presumed to be evidence of ancestral links to a certain geographical region” (Haslanger 44). By this definition, many young people publically face racialization. A black girl’s hair is often criticized when it is in its natural state. For example, Gabby Douglas’ natural ponytail is usually the topic of conversation during the Olympics. She is “marked as a target”, because in America, black features are considered inferior. Through the criticism of her hair, she is placed in a subordinate role. Brock Turner is an example of racialization working in someone’s favor. As a white guy, he is perceived as someone with a bright future. The judicial system issued a lighter sentence, because his white skin puts him in a social position of privilege. This same system can be seen working in an opposite manner for someone of a darker complexion. In the United States, racialization in people younger than 21 seems to bring up the worth of a young person’s life and future. Often times, a young white person’s life and future is deemed more important than the life and future of a person of color. However, an issue arises when the race society places on an individual isn’t the race he or she identifies as.

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  5. Are there any ways to resist sexualization/racialization? Absolutely not. With our society today, everything we do is being examined and judged. We have been taught as a whole to not mess with the status quo, and there are very little that choose to stray away from the norm. Unfortunately, sexualization has hit a whole new height. According to the American Psychological Association, the image of women has drastically increased due to the the way they are portrayed through the media with sexual advertisements, commercials, television shows etc.. Even men have their fair share and have become sexualized over time. There are both women and men everywhere looking for a no strings attached one-night stand, or even just a performance in a strip club. Due to the growth of sexualization, this image of men and women have become the norm, and it is ultimately inevitable. The concept of racialization is very similar because we tend to group people together in our brains to try to make sense of it, and our mindset just follows that lead from then on. Sexualization and racialization are subjective ideologies that cannot be avoided in the 21st century.

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  6. Sexualization can be found throughout generations but most prevalent in our day modern day generation of the millennias. Sexualization can be found in many different forms but more particularly the difference between men and women. Women are mostly looked down upon compared to men. Some actions that men do as looked as being okay. For example, for adults that are younger than twenty-one, if a male has a one-night stand, society sees it as it is alright and not a problem. They don’t consider the male to be atrocious or as if he committed a crime. On the other hand, women who commit those actions are looked as easy or not “women like”. This way of viewing women in society is supported my Haslanger who wrote Gender and Race” which states “Gender categories are defined hierarchically within a broader complex of oppressive relations; one group(women) is socially positioned as subordinate ot the other(men). (Haslanger 38). This correlates with our modern generation of the millennias that are younger than twenty-one. Haslanger understands that men will always have their actions look upon them in a more lenient way compared to as a women’s action. Sexualization in this sense is very prevalent in today’s society.

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  7. 1) The realization and sexualization of people younger than 21 usually take place when people such as adults, of even classmates in school begin to stereotype the individual, or judging them by the way he or she talk, dress or walk. For example, a student maybe get bullied in school because they dress and look different than the norm of what they are supposed to look like according to their gender.
    2) The lack in movement/ unchanged progression I saw in regards to gender, was in the article “The End of Gender”. It had started that Eliot wasn’t really for the eliminating of the men’s and women’s bathroom He believed that kids should stick to their gender roles, as in the ideal of what a boy and girl should be like. Eliot doesn’t see the need of change in how we see gender. In contrast on what Eliot believes, in the article “ The End of Gender” we see a change in regards to gender at the Mona Shores High School. The article stated that their prom would no longer lablize individuals as prom king or queen. Their prom will be gender neutral, soon after the school had denied a transgender student for homecoming king the year before. Another example from the “The End of Gender” article is when, the state department started using gender neutral language on their U.S passports, removing mother and father to parent one and parent two. By doing this, it makes it easier for nontraditional parents get passport for their kids. By this change, no matter the gender it is important to treat each gender as fairly a equally.
    3) I believe there isn’t any way to resist sexulization and racialization because, we are still stuck in a generation that still consist of racist communities and people who sexualize others. In 2016, they’re. People who are unconsciously repeating of their grandparents and ancestors mistakes of pinning down of what gender is suppose to be. By doing so they’re not changing their point of views and behavior on how they should treat each gender equally and justly; not critizing or stereotyping them because of the way he or she looks or dress.

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  8. Media plays a major role in the lives of people younger than 21. The millennials today are effected by the media in every aspect of their life such as racial stereotypes or sex appeal. For example, females look at social medias and other sources for what is considered beautiful and acceptable in the sense of looks. Media influences millennials to think a certain instead of having free thinking. They are brainwashed into thinking a specific way. Looking at music videos, the explicit language and the graphics make young adults to react a certain way towards themselves or the others. An image is represented through these outlets. Whether it be a specific race or all, there is a certain stereotype presented through social media. Social media prevents millennials today from keeping an open mind and influences them into staying in a bubble.

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  9. Resistance towards sexualization and racialization is just not possible in this day and age. I believe that in one way or another, people always seem to be stereotypical somehow when someone mentions the words “girl/boy” or any type of ethnic group. In my opinion, I think it has to do with the way people are brought up. They carry on the same mentality as the people who raised them. I can say this because I have seen it through personal experiences. People can be closed-minded towards people they know nothing about. It comes to people sort of natural to just critic others. Especially in social media, which is open for everyones unwanted opinions and can post negatively or positively just by the sight of a picture. With these upcoming generations it does not seem possible that these problems can be resisted.

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  10. The racialization or sexualization of individuals under 21 is a process that begins from the moment an individual is born and has meaning assigned to them. For example, individuals are assigned sexes before they are able to develop any understanding of self. In other words, the processes of racialization and sexualization are social processes. Society tells people how to read bodies, including their own. This continues throughout infancy and childhood. Racial and sexual identities are reinforced once an individual acquires language and can articulate an understanding of things. We get this information from our parents, siblings, strangers, teachers, TV commercials, textbooks, shows, movies and other cultural and social avenues. Humans are social beings. We don’t live in isolation. We became racialized and/or sexualized through socialization.

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  11. The racialization/sexualization of people younger than 21 usually starts out from the home. Many individuals get their views from the people that they live with or the individuals around them. Religion is a big impact on how parents teach their children and is usually one of the main reasons as to why many older parents that are super religious want their daughters to dress “appropriately” and do not show too much skin. Racialization also comes from the home as well because if one hears family speaking about a certain race in a negative manner or positive manner as well they will start to believe it. Lastly, sexualization also takes place throughout social media and television. It is now a trend for rappers to have women in their videos with minimal clothing usually dancing provocatively. For young adults who watch a lot of television and have many social media accounts these are the things that they are seeing, which results to more and more racialization and sexualization.

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  12. Look at the society we live in. Donald Trump is campaigning to “build a wall” and deport immigrants while music artists are making songs about women, regarding them being superficial and degrading them in a derogatory manner. Men are also being influenced by these songs that only speak about selling drugs as a means to get money, buying guns to cause violent crimes or to idiotically kill someone they don’t like. The media is one outlet that plays a role depicting racialization and sexualization to people younger than twenty-one both men and women. Instagram, Twitter, television, music all have many things in common, they serve as visual and vocal outlets for the “young generation”. They generally incorporate racialization and sexualization into the message that is to be portrayed to the spectator, who are the people younger than twenty-one that are on their phones when they shouldn’t be, scrolling down a screen full of racializing and sexualizing pictures that influence them to think and act the way they do. That’s in addition to the background and upbringing of that person as a child and teenager, and how their surroundings influenced them be, racially and sexually.

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  13. The racialization or the sexualization of people younger than 21 take place because of the social constructs placed on the different genders by society. The article “Gender and Race” discuss how individuals normally differentiate the two genders; male or female. A male is a person who has a penis and a female has a vagina, that’s the only prerequisite many individuals need to determine the gender of another person. But it’s not socially acceptable to simple go up to a stranger and ask them to remove their bottoms to identify their genitalia, so society has placed other guidelines that most people from each gender follow. For example, women are known as the fragile and delicate gender, so they must have gentler qualities, while men are the opposite and must have stronger features. By societies standards women should be curvy, have a delicate face structure, wear pink, and be submissive. Men on the other hand should have a more rugged, strong appearance, and a strong personality. This is taught to the younger generation, by parents teaching little boys to “suck it up”, when they are hurting, and telling little girls, the importance of getting a man when they are older, and how they must submit to be desireable.

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  14. Keziah Riddick
    9//17/16
    POS-MB1

    How does the racialization or the sexualization of people younger than 21 take place?
    The racialization and sexualization of people younger than 21 takes place primarily through social media, and the acceptance of their peers on these platforms. At 21, a person is still developing and therefore still impressionable. At 21, a person is usually emerged in popular culture; especially in terms of the media and social media. In my own experience I find that I spend a lot of time on social media and assessing my race and sexuality through that lense. Societal expectations, their culture and their beliefs or views towards all these factors are constantly being posted or tweeted about online. There are parody accounts of “Things White or Black people say” which use racial stereotypes to make jokes out of societal expectations or assumptions about each race. Also, the Black Lives Matter Movement, emerged primarily on social media. Assumptions and expectations about sexuality are also posted on social media. Images of the female and male body are scrutinized or praised based on the majority’s sexual desires. This is especially apparent in the new invention of Woman Crush Wednesdays or Men Crush Mondays. The use of image based social media such as Instagram encourage sexualization. The more “sexy” one is the more likes they will receive, which feels like they are more accepted by their peers. Racialization and sexualization of young people intersect on social media in a way that makes it accessible to millions of people at the same time, all the time.

    Where do you see an active, purposeful movement of language from static to dynamic in regards to gender?
    Language is extremely important in every aspect of the human experience; and gender is no exception. Labeling or calling someone something based on the binary of boy and girl or male and female has proven itself to be a useless way of identification when addressing gender. Language has moved away from being static to dynamic through the development of new language to address the movement of gender from a binary thing to what seems to be an infinite area of possibilities. One example of this as reported on the ABC News website in February of 2014, Facebook provides a drop down menu with up to 58 gender options for users. The list includes: “Agender, Cisgender Female, Gender fluid and two spirited”. This is just one example of a transition from static language to dynamic language concerning gender.
    (http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2014/02/heres-a-list-of-58-gender-options-for-facebook-users/)

    Are there any ways to resist sexualization/racialization?
    Racialization and sexualization are embedded into our society and way of life, which makes it very difficult to resist or avoid; but nothing is impossible. Perhaps acknowledging forms of racialization and sexualitzation are forms of resistance because it will unmask the issues and complexities surrounding each. The only way to fight back against ignorance is with knowledge in the form of an open dialogue about that ignorance. Maybe the goal is not to resist sexualization/racialization but to resist allowing it to go unchecked.

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  15. How does the racialization or the sexualization of people younger than 21 take place?

    Today the racialization and sexuaculization of the youth is occurring for a number of reasons and but the biggest cause is the media. From a young age the youth of today have infinite access to others via the internet. Kids get phones at younger and younger ages and are able to be connected to others for a longer time than most people that are 21 today or older. The media portrays racialization to these kids because the news channels and interviewers all have their own views and opinions on what they are reporting about. These views are old views and they often create groups and create the idea that there are races and groups. The same thing occurs with sexualization through the use of commercials. Kids are trained to stare at the tv for hour and turn their brain to mush. They soak in everything that they watch and hear. Especially commercial telling young girls that if they want to be pretty they need buy XYZ eyeliner or some other type of makeup. The media that these youth are able to view has to be more open and not teach that there is a gap.

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  16. How does the racialization and sexualization of people under the age of 21 years occur?

    When we take a look around at the society we live in, we see racialization and sexualization occurring everywhere and anywhere. When children are born… Actually, BEFORE babies are born, we begin the sexualization of the child. In a baby shower for the child, we decorate a party hall in either pink or blue to symbolize the gender of the child. We conform this baby who has know idea what pink or blue even are to a certain color. We dress this baby in this color, we raise them in this color. When children grow, we tell boys that they aren’t allowed to play with Barbie Doll’s and they can only play with “Boy Toys.” We explain to them that only girls play with dolls and only girls play with tea cups. Boys have to play with Superheroes and with trains and cars. When children start to go to school, we begin to penalize them if they don’t do what they are conformed to do. When asking a child about what they want to be when they grow up, we encourage boys to say “police officer” or “fireman” and girls to say “teachers” or “nurses.” We don’t encourage young boys to become teachers or other professions that are considered to be a “woman’s” profession, nor do we encourage girls to become “doctors” or “politicians.” We tell girls that their looks are everything. We do their hair, put lipgloss on them, compliment their pretty “you look just like a princess” dresses. We show them Disney Princess movies where Prince Charming comes and saves them at the end. We raise them with the ideology that a man will be the only way they can be saved. We continue this up until a child becomes a teen. Only then do we accept the fact that the child itself will begin discovering their own sexualization. Even then, we tell children that girls are supposed to like boys and boys are supposed to like girls.

    Racialization also starts at a young age. When children are young, we teach them about slavery, instilling in their minds that people of color were once considered to be less superior than whites. When we talk to young children and point some students out in classrooms saying “Justin, if it were slavery times, you would be a slave!” we are instilling in the children of color that they are somehow less than the rest of the class. Not only that, but when we look back at Disney Princess movies, how much diversity is within these movies? You’ll see one Asian princess, one Indian Princess, one Native American Princess, and one Black Princess. However, you’ll see numerous white princesses. Even when going out to get Barbie Dolls, we see that there are far more white Barbie Dolls than Barbie Dolls of color. This has changed in recent years where the Barbie Company has introduced different shapes, sizes, and colors of their Doll’s however, it is still instilled in our current youth that “the white doll is prettier.”

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  17. How does the racialization and sexualization of people under the age of 21 years occur?
    Racialization and sexualization of young people occurs at the early stage of their upbringing. It all starts from parents, grandparents who teach or steer kids into certain directions. Social customs that hold certain value can influence ones mind and future judgement. As an example, if a woman smokes, drinks or even talks in a vulgar way is looked up on differently than when a man does it. Social media is the most influential in our days, from music videos to clothes .

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  18. 1. I feel that the sexualization of people younger than 21 takes place because of the gender roles coming from an inherent patriarchal society imposed on youth from a young age. Before kids are even born, when the typical family finds out the gender of a child, they impose roles on the unborn child. For instance, they buy pink clothing if their child will turn out to be female and blue clothing if the child turns out to be a male. This continues throughout children’s lives. A daughter is taught to be soft and encouraged to play with dolls while a son is taught to be rough and encouraged to play with cars. The media also tends to hypersexualize children, specifically female children, and creates an environment where males are allowed to treat females in whatever way they choose and women should accept the treatment as a compliment. An example of this is how if boys hurt girls on the playground, adults tend to joke around telling the girls that the boys are doing so because they like them. They may not be talking explicitly about sex, but they are imposing a non-platonic relationship between children.
    2. I see an active, purposeful movement of language from static to dynamic in regards to gender within social media, more specifically Tumblr. This is where I was first introduced to the concept of cisgender and it is where I have participated a lot within the discourse of gender within society. A lot of people on the website have thrown out the roles they felt forced to follow prior to discovering the movement and have begun to present themselves without any worries of feeling judgment or shame.
    3. I don’t believe that currently there are any ways to resist sexualization or racialization because these things are institutionalized. For instance, as a poc female, I could walk around the city and I will get catcalled or get told to go back to my country without any instigation from my part.

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  19. How does the racialization or the sexualization of people younger than 21 take place?

    Racialization or the sexualization of people younger than 21 take place in multiple of ways. The prevalent influence is the impact of the media. All the time they spend on social media, watching TV, etc. it starts to have an effect on them, where most of the information posted or broadcasted on these platforms are usually negative. Especially since they are young and their brains are developing, it’s easier to influence a person under the age of 21 compared to someone older.

    Another impact is the way they are raised and the environment they were raised in. When you are young you look up to your parents or the person/people that raise you. You start learning from them and see what they do and don’t think about if it’s right or wrong because they are the only people to influence, you look up to and think they are never wrong. Also, it transfers to the environment you are raised in. If you are raised in an unstable environment it would have negative influences on you and since you are young don’t know what’s different between what is right and wrong. You wouldn’t think you are doing anything wrong. It’s like that if you see your father abusing your mother, you wouldn’t think that is wrong. As you have a higher chance to abuse your significant other.

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  20. The racialization and sexualization of people under 21 takes place through a combination of media, marketing, and sometimes regular social interactions within their communities. The saying “Sex sells” is deeply rooted in western media and a majority of advertising relies on sexual content to be able to sell their product.

    White actors and actresses dominate the big and small screen. Black, Hispanic, and Asian actors have a presence but are few and far between in “serious” forms of Western art and it has been said through actresses such as Jada Pinkett Smith and Lucy Liu that Black and Asian actors and actresses are very rarely offered roles in serious films. To be any race besides White and to look on your TV screen and all you see as the “beautiful leading lady” and “handsome lead actor” are folks who are White, it definitely brings to your attention the lack of your race being represented.

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  21. 1.) How does the racialization or the sexualization of people younger than 21 take place?

    The racialization and sexualization of people under 21 occurs on most media platforms and social networking sites and also begins to take place on the micro-level such as classrooms. Social websites such as Facebook and Twitter and other forms of media contain photography and viewpoints which shape young girls’ desire to objectify their bodies in order to please others. Media outlets display women in an extremely sexualized manner; male and female models are sexualized in terms of clothing racialized in terms of color. Female models usually wear very limited amount of clothing and display their feminine characteristics while male models have clothing. People under 21 view this example of sexualization and aim to become like them; girls aim to be lean and delicate while boys’ aims are to become strong and aggressive. Karin A. Martin writes, “The five-year-old children tended to dress-up more gender normatively. Girls in particular played at being adult women…Five-year-old boys also did not dress up elaborately, but used one piece of clothing to animate their play” (499). By girls aiming to be adult women and boys assuming a piece of clothing as their costume in their games goes to show that they are taught to become gendered by the world around them.
    Teachers in preschool also sexualize children under 21 by expressing discipline towards boys more than girls. Martin expresses her observations that as girls advance in classes, they learn to adopt their role as a female and unlike girls, boys are more aggressive because they associate interaction with anger and struggle since they have been more disciplined from adults who have control over them (507). However, media is not the only factor in sexualization of people under 21: “In preschool, bodies become gendered in ways that are so subtle and taken-for-granted that they come to feel and appear natural. Pre- school, however, is presumably just the tip of the iceberg in the gendering of children’s bodies. Families, formal schooling, and other institutions (like churches, hospitals, and workplaces) gender children’s physicality as well” (Martin 510). Not only media platforms and social networking sites but also general public establishments such as religious buildings and workplace also contribute. For example, Tyra Banks is a supermodel who, when applied to various modeling agencies in the start of her career, was always told that they had already found the single Black model they needed. Racialization and sexualization are factors of society that shape people, especially under 21. Workplaces, religious worshipping places as well as social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter also contribute in sexualizing and racializing people under 21.

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  22. No, I don’t think there’s a way to resist sexualization/racialization. The media plays a critical role in society. They provide us with definition about who we are. Especially models who portray images that people strives for. Kylie Jenner for an example places most of her focus on aesthetic features. Not too long ago, she had a viral social media challenge that provoked young teens to make their lips look fuller like hers by suctioning their lips with shot glasses. Also, by the help of her mother, Kris, Kylie has specialized at portraying herself as a sex symbol. Kris arranges her photoshoots, which contains bikini shots and racy social media pictures. What is most frightening about the sexualization of Kylie is the public acceptance and support. Supporting her behavior validates the sexualization of young women. Her fame is a dangerous trend of bringing up young girls to have low self-esteem, and value themselves based on beauty standards that aren’t real. So, unless all technologies are confiscated to stop people from going on social media, I don’t think sexualization/rationalization is resistible.

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  23. Rationalization and Sexualization are very prevalent in today’s society. I believe it is unavoidable. The Article Sexual Science discusses how often wearing certain garments can determine your gender, and also wearing short shorts, skirts,long pants can also determine your personality. Many people look up to celebrities and important figures such as Presidential Candidate Hillary Clinton, and either admires or discourages her for what she wears. According to my friend Chloe Symone, ” Sexualization has gotten too far out of hand. Some people have started to fight the over sexualization of women with over sexualization of men, and that doesn’t do anything but fuel the idea that people are not people but simply objects to be used.” She continues, “I think that the over sexualization of our day has a lot to do with hook up culture and the way that people view others as well as themselves and can compartmentalize and detach from feelings. Many People view sex as simply a biological urge, but we are socialized to believe that men want it more than women and women need to be chaste in order to keep their sensibilities.” According to Sexual Science “Women have more child like
    Characteristics then men”. However I feel Man and Women equal chance of achieving the same goals and this an example of rationalization for me.

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  24. How does the racialization or the sexualization of people younger than 21 take place?

    Racialization as well as the sexualization of people younger than 21 can take place in
    numerous ways. The home in which a person grows up in can shape his or her life in ways that can impact that person for the better or for the worse. From the beginning of a boy’s childhood he is taught to be tough and have a strong character as well as dressing in colors such as blue which symbolizes the typical color a boy would wear. When a girl is growing up in a household she is taught to have a smoother and more laid-back personality that is more gentle than a boy’s personality. The culture and nationality in which a person is from has a lot to do with how they’re treated.
    For example, in several Hispanic households, the boys are taught to never be in the kitchen because that is a girl’s job. In the early 18 to 1900s the majority of households involved a woman being a stay home mom and taking care of the children, while the husband went out to work in order to put food on the table. That still takes place in today’s society and it is very minimal because of how much a woman has advanced and some of them are even doing the men’s jobs.

    Technology also plays a huge role in the sexualization of people. A major part of this is social media websites such as Twitter and Instagram. For example, people sexualize a female by liking a lot of pictures in which they reveal parts of their body to the public that appear too revealing, however when it is a picture of just their face, they receive fewer likes.
    In conclusion, it can be seen that technology and the household in which a male or female grows up in can define the way in which they look at the rest of society and the norms in which that society often puts on young adult’s life in today’s world.

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  25. Are there any ways to resist sexualization/racialization?
    Sexualization and racialization have become almost inevitable in today’s society. However, in my opinion, I do believe that there are ways that future generations can avoid or resist them. Due to the fact that most religions, such as major religions like Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, are androcentric; sexualization occurs within the first few years of a human being’s life. When a child is born, the parents begin dressing him/her in pink or blue in addition to telling the child stories about the religion that they want to raise them in. Girl’s are told about the Virgin Mary and how she was “pure” due to the fact that she was a Virgin. If we were to take religion out of the picture, sexualization would diminish drastically. If we were to raise children with a blank slate in their mind about who or what they are, they would grow up to discover their own truth on their own. They would believe what they want to believe instead of what parents want them to believe. When children go to school, they are taught about reproduction and how women were made to be impregnated by men. However, these children are not taught about the various other ways that are now possible for a women to conceive a child. By introducing these ideas into a child’s curriculum, they will face less sexualization. Not only that, but also having gender specific sports teams encourages sexualization. Why do girls play softball and not baseball? Why can’t females and males play on the same team? Why do girls have to throw a ball underhand while boys can throw a curve ball? Why is there no female football team in the NFL? Actually, why can’t females play on the men’s team? These specific questions are being asked today, whereas they could be avoided if the new generation were to eliminate the stereotype of sexualization.
    Racialization is something that can also be avoided. When children go to school, we often times point out how they are either classified as “Black, White, Hispanic, or Other.” But what do people of mixed descents write down? Eliminating racial questions in schools would be the first step into eliminating racialization. In order for us to completely eliminate racialization in America, we would need to eliminate race itself, which seems damn near impossible to do. However, I feel as if in the next fifty years or so, it can be very well possible.

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  26. We live in a society that many would say is over-sexed. From ads for fast food, to music videos, and even activist campaigns, sex is the means used to draw attention to, and sell a product or idea. People under the age of 21 are not only typically exposed to these things on a daily basis, but they are targeted by them. AXE, the deodorant brand, markets their product with advertising that suggests hordes of attractive women will flock to the man who uses their product, regardless of his social standing, or typical popularity with girls (i.e. nerd, loser, or jock). While the commercials are meant to be outlandish, and over-exaggerated, to an impressionable pubescent teen, the concept itself is promising enough.
    On the other side of the gender spectrum, we have girls who are constantly exposed to unrealistic beauty standards, and who are constantly seeing ads where women’s bodies are being objectified to cater to the “male gaze”. This makes a strong impact on young girls who are still trying to form a self-identity, while also trying to fit in with everyone else. With these types of images being the standard for women through media outlets, girls begin to try their best to conform to the standard from a very young age. With doing this, comes the uninvited, and inappropriate attention of older men, which isn’t readily deemed problematic because it was for him that the original image was cut and crafted for.
    However, while media does play its significant role in the sexualization of youths, the unfortunate truth is that it all really begins in infancy. As soon as gender is pinpointed in an infant, the sexualization of that child begins. Adults will say things like “he’s going to be a lady killer when he’s older” about a baby boy when he makes women laugh, or “she’s not going to have any trouble finding a boyfriend” about a baby girl with big eyes, and long lashes, who likes to smile. They project adult behaviours and expectations (those same ones enforced by the media) onto children who don’t even have a grasp on the concepts that these adults insist the child is expressing. Children begin to understand these remarks from very early on, and continue to hear them as they grow older. As they contiue to be exposed to them, they begin to internalize what these adult figures are projecting on them, (things which become reinforced by what they are exposed to in the media) and in turn become susceptible to the influences of what they see on tv, and fall into the trap of accepting their sexualization.

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  27. Radicalization/sexualization can begin as early as pregnancy when parents learn of the gender of their baby. In this generation, there are gender reveal parties with hidden blue or pink colors to notify the soon to be parents and their family/friends whether the baby is going to be a boy or a girl. For a boy, the color blue, and for a girl, the color pink. This fact is painstakingly obvious. By already applying a specific color to an unborn baby, a color that is then used to decorate rooms and buy clothes and toys, the sexualization of said baby had begun. This color, or some variation of, sticks all the way into adulthood, despite what color the individual would choose to be his/her favorite in the future. The saying “real men wear pink” should not have to exist if there was no social stigma suggesting pink is a color that can only be liked or worn by females. While sexualization begins with colors, it continues on in the clothes chosen for kids by their parents. Clothes, in general, are still not gender neutral. To dress a girl, skirts are often chosen over pants, whereas boys only have the options of pants or shorts. However, as girls get older, their wearing of skirts become more and more sexualized into a form of revealing their legs. While girls go through puberty, it becomes significant for them to “cover up” certain areas of their bodies, e.g. boobs, hips, butt, or “reveal less.” This sudden onset is when girls under 21 get the most sexualized. Girls start to be seen as objects and told to dress so boys don’t get “distracted,” rather than boys being told not to see women as sex objects and to respect their bodies. This part usually happens from middle school to high school. People under 21, both males and females, now have an unrealistic view of what they should look like or how they should act or speak or dress. For as old as 18-21, each have ideal pictures of what society says they should look like. While males should be tall and completely fit, females are supposed to have a flat stomach with big boobs and a big butt.
    Radicalization also plays a role in early childhood, as young as toddlers, because culture is deeply rooted into their minds from the languages they are learning, the lessons they are taught, and the rules they are told according to their gender and religion.

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  28. Heteronormativity is a word that has just started to be used in everyday vocabulary. Heteronormativity defines the natural gender roles a male or female must attain to or would be considered to fall into. Heteronormativity is prevalent in many issues such as a girl seeing a guy that she is interested in but will not go to approach a guy because it is the norm that a girl wouldn’t not go to approach the man as we have been accustomed to believe that the guy should go ahead an approach the girl. More specifically heteronormativity affects hair and facial in particular. Many people that believe that hair should adhere to their respect genders. For example, short hair should belong to a male and long hair should belong to a female. We see a clear example of this in “A Mexican Who Looks Like You” by Kimberlee Perez. “The black woman who call me the white bitch and wants to know who I think I am. She is angry with my performance” (Perez 397). The heteronormativity with this situation is that the black woman considers Kimberlee’s hair to be not for her because she has dreadlocks and that is not what a Mexican does with their hair. Performance is included due to the fact that Kimberlee is not behaving in regards to her own “culture”. This occurs at many times throughout any day. Heteronormativity dictates society and the politics of the hair. It is to be thought that an individual would adhere to their own hairstyle within their own “culture” and follow the normal way to go about their hair, this all refers back to the heteronormativity and how it affects the politics of hair.

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  29. The politics of hair affects heteronormativity in that certain hairstyles can be considered “raced”. Box braids, cornrows, dreadlock’s and various other hairstyles are seen being worn predominantly by black females and males; when you take those same hairstyles and apply it to other races, for example white people, it is seen as an anomaly and a form of cultural appropriation. Kimberlee Perez states this in “A Mexican Who Looks Like You” and goes on to add that “all hair is political” (Perez 397) and that the performativity of race is comparable to the performativity of hair.

    Is this a means to order what hairstyles will be accepted in our heteronormative society as an extension of ordering bodies and actions? Looking through most employee handbooks of corporate America would lead us to believe yes. In actuality you can wear any hairstyle you want. But you still have to be prepared to be judged and maybe even passed up for a job based on your choices. Unfortunately the system is still unfair in some areas though I think it will continue to be improved for future generations.

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  30. How does Heteronormativity affect the politics of hair?

    Heteronormativity as people know is the assumption that both male and females are placed into one category since their date of birth. More significantly it means that being a heterosexual is the only normal way that should coexist between people of the opposite sex.

    In terms of heteronormativity affecting the politics of hair, one can conclude that by a habit of nature, a woman’s body is portrayed as having less hair in genital areas as well as parts such as the armpits and legs than a man’s body. In the article, “The New Full-Frontal:Has Pubic Hair in America Gone extinct?” by Ashley Fetters, a woman named Sophia Pinto is described as today’s Barbie due to the fact that she has not one bit of hair on all of her body besides her head. In this article it is also mentioned that woman also seem to shave a lot more than men especially in their gential areas because of fear of getting talked bad about by a male that has sexual relationships with her. In today’s society having a lot of hair is described as having a masculinity trait, while having little to no hair is seen as femininity and being soft.

    In my personal experience, I never gave it that much thought as to the media actually making a big deal out of all these norms and rules that should apply to a woman and man having too much hair or none at all. In the article, “Razor’s Edge: The Politics of Facial Hair”, it says “Muscarella and Cunningham use evolutionary theory to suggest that facial hair is associated with aggressiveness and masculinity.” This quote really changed the way I looked at the aspects of beards and it is due to the fact that as a male I’ve always liked having a beard and not just because the media describes it as being manly or having a rough side to me but due to the fact that it is a style that has always caught my eye and has appealed in a natural way to me. Research by authors like Muscarella and Cunningham is the reason why heteronormativity is putting certain rules on males and females. As a male you should not have to be looked at as being childish or immature if you do not have facial hair. A person should be able to feel comfortable with the way they look no matter where they have hair and it is unfortunate that heteronormativity affects the way a person portrays themselves.

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  31. 2. The language we use to describe bodies changes as the processes we use to modify them do, because processes of modification introduce new ways of speaking about bodies into our lexicon. An example of this is in “The New Full-Frontal: Has Pubic Hair in America Gone Extinct?” when author Ashley Fetters explains how “In 1987, Jocely, Jonice, Janea, Joyce, Jussara, Juracy, and Judseia Padilha opened the appropriately named J. Sisters salon in Midtown Manhattan, where they began offering what they had dubbed the “Brazilian wax.” In other words, before the Brazilian Wax was a thing, no one could’ve used it as a way to describe a person’s body. But, as the trend progressed, the author notes that “In 2000, one groundbreaking episode of Sex And The City made the Manolo Blahnik demographic sit up and take notice: Heroine Carrie Bradshaw found a new swagger in her step after waxing it off.” The language we use to talk about bodies is in a constant state of change. Whether or not the language we use to talk about bodies changes for the better or worse is a whole other topic. For instance, In “Body Hair Removal: The ‘Mundane’ Production of Normative Femininity,” we see that the process of depilation, in a sense, reinforces existing gender roles of masculinity and femininity. So while the language we use to talk about bodies definitely changes as our processes of modification do, I would say that these changes aren’t always for the better.

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  32. Changes to bodies have been constantly changing over time. Time has shown that different body styles and how one would present themselves to the public has changed with time. Many different words can be used to describe the way body modification have changed over time. Many different references have come about and many have also faded away. We see that in this twenty-first century the idea of pubic hair has evolved to the point where it is a trend or very popular where all the hair is taken off. Many people refer to this as “taking it all off”. Many people have started to follow this new trend. The media and celebrities have had an influence on how body modification has been referred to in recent society. Ashley Fetters the author of “The New Full-Frontal: Has Pubic Hair in America Gone Extinct?” has included in her article that “It is stated that Victoria Beckham had announced that she thought Brazilian waxes should be compulsory at age 15. Eva Longoria followed suit in 2006, telling Cosmopolitan that “every woman should try a Brazilian wax once. The sex they have afterward will make them keep coming back” (Fetters 3). After having these two prominent women in society state these opinions many young woman and girls will adhere to this advice and start to conform to the normal gender roles of this current society. After stating that they would keep coming after having sex with the Brazilian wax, makes it even more tempting for everyone who is listening to Eva Longaria. The thought of having sex that is better without pubic hair is very attractive and these women wouldn’t mind to constantly get this done. Also, the way Eva said it that it will sex better that language has evolved and has caught the attention of the youth which lures them to adhere to this new type of language based on body modification and creates new trends and fads. The language for body modification has changed with the media and celebrities like presented by Ashley Fetters and it will continue to change as woman and men start to progress in time and the new trends start to become popular.

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  33. 2. Based on the modification of bodies, has the language that described them changed?

    Modification of bodies happens slowly over time. Change does not occur overnight. “What’s happening to female vaginas? Is pubic hair going extinct?” questions Ashley Fetters, author of the the article “The New Full-Frontal: Has Pubic Hair in America Gone Extinct?” The idea of pubic hair has changed drastically over the years. According to the article, “Once upon a time, all vulvas were coated in a protective layer of coarse, woolly tresses”…”But like any evolving species, the vulva has morphed into something sleeker, starker, and altogether more modern. Today, it is smooth, baby-soft, and hairless.” The language that is being used to describe the vulvas of the past include words such as coarse and woolly compared to the language being used to them of present day vulvas which uses words such as “modern” and “sleeker.” The modification of female bodies by the depilation of hair has brought such changes to the language used to describe vulvas. Not only that, but the article describes present day vulvas as being “baby soft,” versus comparing it earlier to the wool of a sheep.

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  34. Body Modification has always been an ongoing issue in recent times. Changes that individuals have done to themselves are always questioned as to why that was done and for what reason. Deviance or straying out of the norm plays an important role on how an individual express themselves through body modification. Male and Female both have to go beyond the norm and defy the odds to obtain their ideal and most satisfying look that they want. Body modification is slowly becoming accustomed to society by having many people come out and tell their stories on what they have done to their bodies and what made them do it. They defied the normal way and stood out to achieve a goal or to achieve self satisfaction. Eventually this body modification subject will be normal and any type of change would be accepted or at least not criticized by the public. In the video with the Ken look a like that had many body modification procedures done to him. He defied the the norm and did what he wanted to do to his body to achieve his ultimate appearance. He had no other reason to do it besides the image he wanted to attain. There was no medical purpose for which he needed these surgeries. He just wanted to attain his perfect image he had in head for himself. Later in the video he spoke about how he was modeling his own implants to feel and look normal in his body, this can be seen as an art to many or to other this can be a way to keep him busy. In all, deviance is clearly shown in his story that he portrayed to us. He certainly had no regrets over his body after the surgeries. He loved it and that care about what others had to say. He had to defy the norm and It has to start somewhere in this modern day society. Deviance is really a trend that is evolving each and every day. Body modification is no different to change and how it is being accepted. Without individuals who go against the grain this evolution of body modification wouldn’t be able to move forward and progress into modern day society. This pattern will continue as long as there those individuals that show that their bodies are theirs and they are able to change it in any way, shape or form. As this trend continues there will be less deviance towards the norm and it would start out to be acceptance and they would be just following a normal life.

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  35. Sex tourism having been around for a long time but just recently started to become popular around the world. Sex tourism has been roughly everywhere but more it is more practiced internationally than here in America, but as time goes on and sex tourism is becoming fairly popular at the same time it is becoming increasingly common. As society and life move on many people have needs or want to venture out on their vacations and do something that is not common back in their home country. The more vacations mainly single people go on will want to have some local strange and through travel agencies that don’t advertise it out right but can suggest a fun time will know where to go and how much to pay for that kind of service. This is an increasing business where it could be spreading more and more in undeveloped countries as supposed to countries that are typically modern day. The reason is not clearly known as to why but it can be speculated that due to the economy and how many people or typical people that are in this line of work are not rather wealthy and living solely on their sex work which it makes much more prevalent to continue this and make sure sex tourism is well known during a tourist’s time in their country. Increasing globalization of sex tourism is rapidly occurring while it could be for pleasure or to achieve happiness in another person’s arm, this type of work is going to grow rather quickly frankly due to one’s desire to try something new while they are on vacation or just for pleasure. “Female Sex Tourism in The Caribbean” by Hildegard Klein states “Most women tourists are middle-ages single travelers from a variety of social backgrounds, yet they are always in a privileged economic position compared to the impoverished local men they use or abuse for their sexual pleasure in an exotic land” (Klein 156). Klein realizes that sex tourism is geared by mid-aged women looking for a new dangerous male playmate to prey on that needs the money due to their economic standpoint. This proves that sex tourism will continue to grow on global level especially quickly in impoverished countries. These sex workers won’t say no as I am sure that they do like their work or at least some of them like the pleasure and which on top of that they are getting paid for their services. Sex tourism will only grow larger and larger throughout different countries largely supported by wealthy tourists and the local people who can’t find another job or need the money to support their families or even they may just enjoy the pleasure that involves with sex tourism.

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  36. Does engaging in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) create new conceptions of masculinity and femininity?  How?

    When most people think of a person purchasing sex their mind may immediately think of a man doing the purchasing. In Female Sex Tourism In The Caribbean the article opens in the introduction with a quote from Julie Bindel that says: “Thought it was just men who flew abroad for squalid sexual kicks?”- Right here this immediately sets the tone of the article that traditional gender roles will be blurred.

    Women in general are not usually thought of as consumers of sex work, they’re traditionally thought of as the ones doing the selling. To see the roles reversed of prostitute and John (or in this case Jane) does create a new conception of femininity. Women are often thought of as being submissive when it comes to sex. Here we see money, which symbolizes power in the relationship of sex worker and sex purchaser, being exchanged from a woman to a man purely for sex and this in turn signifies a woman basically having “power” over a man, be it a short while.

    I do see this as maybe a little emasculating for a man. Men are stereotypically thought of as being sex obsessed and not picky with their partners if guaranteed sex is involved. However, in this type of exchange I feel it would still be in general dehumanizing (the same as it would be for a woman), and no matter how they spin they are being exploited by someone trying to exercise power over them.

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  37. Are those who participate in sex work (as one who labors or one who purchases) Othered? Does the normalization one of your articles speaks to carry through for both genders?

    After reading “Technology, normalisation and male sex work” I think that the normalization of sex work offered online, and within the privacy of one’s own home, creates a space for people to be more open with their desires which creates a market for more specific kinds of services. This creates a sort of online community where the services offered by sex workers, and more generally the idea of sex work overall, is no longer considered “other.” I think that something that is offered on a forum as large as the internet, shows that it is widely searched for and there for is in some way normalized. The fact that the transaction is from the privacy of their own homes, may make it more comfortable for people to reach out to these kinds of websites and cause normalization that way, as well. For those reasons, I think the first part of this question is a two part answer, that: 1) The normalization of sex work through the internet is becoming less taboo and more easily accessible to a wider group of consumers 2) however, the participants in sex work are still Othered in the wide scope of society, because from a moralist view the idea of sex work will never shed it’s deviant history.
    Since both articles deal mostly in MALE sex work, based on my knowledge so far, I would have to conclude that the normalization of sex work does not speak equally for both genders. The way sex work is portrayed is as if the men who choose to go into sex work are making the conscious decision to do so, where as women are forced to go into sex work. It is as if to say men have more agency over their bodies than women do. This results in, generally, more acceptance and therefore faster normalization for male sex workers.

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  38. Sex education towards children and adolescents has been an ongoing issue within this modern day society. Controversy will always be there amongst different religions and different view points. Institutions plays a big role in what children learn and how it is being taught. Some topics would include sex partner choice, safe sex methods and even at times sexuality education in terms of gay sex and sexual orientation. Though, some intuitions don’t include sexual orientation and gay sex because it varies by state what public schools include in their core studies. Many institutions have different point of views in which they see what children learn and parents also have a say in their education of this type of material. Some students can be removed from the sex education course if their parents like them to be. An article written by the American Academy of Pediatrics by several pediatrician’s state that “Two-thirds of states and the District of Columbia allow parents to remove their children from participation or opt out from sexuality education. Fewer than half of states and the District of Columbia require parents to be notified that sexuality education will be provided” (American Academy of Pediatrics e4). It can clearly be seen that the parents with certain beliefs or certain information that they want confidential or told in a different way can easily have their child removed and the the place of learning can’t do anything about it. They ultimately have the last say in what they learn and how they perceive this information. Institutions are largely controlled by the government for the most part due to the large amount of government funding that they receive by which they must adhere to a certain type of sex education at least give their students basic knowledge of the topic and go more in depth such as choosing the right sex partner or learning about STI’s. In all, intuitions have to try and please parents and the government with their sex education class to make sure they don’t offend anyone and to make sure they do the bare minimum at least to keep their funding. Most schools worry about the funding and not about teaching the right material the right way to be most informative and helpful to the child.

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